FANS -- Future Air Navigation
The result of an International Civil Aviation Organization
(ICAO) initiative begun in 1983 to evaluate air traffic management
systems and procedures and make modernization recommendations, the
FANS concept became the plan for revamping air navigation processes
for the 21st century, primarily through a shift to using satellite
technology instead of depending on ground-based technology.
NASA Virtual Skies -- Aviation
Navigation is the art and science of getting from point "A" to
point "B" in the least possible time without losing your way. In
the early days of aviation, navigation was mostly an art. The
simplest instruments of flight had not been invented, so pilots
flew "by the seat of their pants." Today, navigation is a science
with sophisticated equipment being standard on most aircraft.
"A clearance is not required to operate VFR through a
restricted area when the controlling or using agency, as
applicable, has made a determination that the restricted area is
'cold'. [Cold = Not Active]"
Source: A response provided to members of
SAFE's Library Editorial Review Committee (LERC), who raised a
key question: "Is a clearance in fact required to fly through a
Restricted Area when that area is not in use?"